Having both the baseload and dispatchable mode of operational capabilities, sustainable geothermal energy will replace the role of current fossil-based baseload power plant (such as coal etc.), promoting more and more intermittent renewable energy (such as solar, wind etc.) integration into the power grid of the future decarbonised power grid. Geothermal has by far the lowest carbon footprint (20-30 kg CO 2 /MWh), to be compared to those of biogas (150-250 kg CO 2 /MWh) or fossil fuels (500-1000 kg CO 2 /MWh).
However, geothermal is currently the most underutilized of renewable resources, even though it is in principle, via Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS), possible to use anywhere. A key issue with deep geothermal is the high cost. Today, it is mainly cost-effective only in geologically active areas such as Northern Italy, Turkey, Iceland, etc. This becomes increasingly important as renewables such as wind and PV solar are intermittent and focussed on electricity production while traditional electricity production (nuclear, fossil) is being phased out. And this is combined with a potentially large increase in demand for electricity via electric cars and the rapid development of global economies. With a few exceptions, currently almost all of the geothermal plants are supported under feed in tariff schemes. Therefore, its cost competitiveness needs to be improved. We are working on several technologies to improve the performance of geothermal power plant.